Culture and Religion


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Few days back my sister had an interview for the post of assistant professor in Gujarati department in Krushnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University. Her PhD thesis was ‘રઘુવીર ચૌધરી ના સાહિત્ય માં સાંસ્કૃતિક ચેતના Raghuveer Chaudhari na sahitya ma sanskrutik chetna (Cultural awakening in Raghuveer Chaudhari’s literature)’. My sister told me to write something for her on Sanskruti (According to her Sanskriti is wrong correct is Sankruti-Culture). I wrote one article for her and thought of sharing with you.


It is necessary to talk about religion whenever there is discussion about culture because there is very thin line between both. Culture and religion are connected together and sometime both are back bone of one another. Let us take two examples.

Example 1: Culture is reason behind identity of religion

All of Christian nations celebrate Christmas festival. Santa Clause comes in sledge cart pulled by Reindeers who are led by red nosed Rudolf. A thought came in my mind, Christianity founded by Christ in Jerusalem then how both hot desert and cold ice are connected? According to historical records Christian priests went to Scandinavian countries to spread Christianity. To convince them priests adopted their culture of Santa Clause and it became part of Christianity in Europe. This culture spread in world where Europeans migrated and this is how Santa Clause became one of the symbol of Christianity.

Example 2: Religion propagates a culture

Lets talk about India. Sanatan Dharm prevails in India. Anyway, there are two important characteristics of Sanatan Dharm are eye catching: Knowledge and accepting independent existence. Knowledge because Sanatani worship knowledge in the form of god (That also female form!) and accepting independent existence because we respected and accepted Baudhhism, Jainism, Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism etc. These two characteristics are clearly visible in India’s culture. Worship of knowledge provoked hunger of knowledge in Indians and they wrote 4 Veds, 108 Upnishads, 18 Purans, 2 epics, 1 law. It is surprising Sanatanis have many literature but none of them is authentic religious scripture i.e. absence of ‘ism’ even in scriptures. This knowledge hunger of Sanatanis gave first university in world (Takshashila), calculus(Bhaskara, Aryabhatta), chemistry (Nagarjun), Medicine (Dhanvantari), Surgery (Sushrut), Mathematics, numerals including zero etc. With this a culture of respecting scholars became popular in India. If we talk about accepting independent existence, all the ideology expert used to debate with each other regarding their ideology and mutually accepted each other opinion. If they find something good then accept it. This traditional mentality promoted believer of many faiths in India and that is fundamental reason behind culture of tolerance in India.

A Thought of Mind

I think Sanatan Dharm will be more appropriate than Hinduism due to two reasons. First reason, Hindu word derived from the book titled Indica written by Greek explorer Megasthenes (4 BCE). He derived this name from river Sindhu and that is why Hindu is geographical term. Another reason is ‘ism’ in any word means believing in that ideology only e.g. Feminism (believe in female rights only), Monotheism (Believe in only one god), Bauddhism (Believe in Buddh), Vaishnavism (Believe in Vishnu), Shaivism (Believe in Shiv) etc. But in ‘Hinduism’ we don’t believe in single faith. So, Hinduism is not appropriate.

ઝબકારો: Culture and religion are strongly bonded with each other that is why communist also hate culture along with religion.



  • Raghuveer Chaudhari won Gnanpeeth Award 2016 for his contribution to Gujarati literature. He was fourth Gujarati, after Umashankar Joshi, Pannalal Patel, Rajendra Shah, to win this award.

  • Umashankar Joshi wrote famous Gujarati song representing Gujarat’s identity Gujarat mori mori re… which is popular song in every household in Gujarat.

  • Pannalal Patel wrote a novel named Manvi ni Bhavai on the theme of Chappaniyo Duskal (Great famine of Vikram Sanvant 1956, 1900 AD. Another famine was Chhanavo Duskal of Vikram Sanvant 1996, 1940 AD). A movie with same title based on this novel won National Award.

  • Rajendra Shah wrote a famous song Tara Vina Shyam Mane Ekalu Lage… and this song is so much popular that no Navratri event will be completed without playing this song :).


Game Theory, Universities, and Why IISc is Research Leader in India


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In my previous two articles ‘What is research?: Role of parents and schools in child’s research attitude’ and ‘What is research?: Foundation of universities as research system’ I tried to explain how to design and develop two system: Child(future researcher) and University (research system). This article is a case study which will demonstrate what are the factors led IISc to win the race of research leader in India. This will be the last email in the series.

Unlike other games, business is different because there is chance of win-win for both the players. Let us understand with whom company as an organisations plays with.


Figure: Value net of business

You may be aware with all of players except complementor. Let me brief about it. A player is your complementor if customer value your product more when they have the other player’s product than when they have your product alone. An ancient Indian concept of residential facilities to students is best example of complementor. One important observation from ruins of ancient Indian universities is hostels for students. This provided protected environment for foreign students where only like minded people will be available. In modern day scholarships serve the purpose of complementor. Sometime having university itself serves the purpose of complementor in development. For example university founded in an university town some 100 years ago and now it has become town with all the facilities.

Sometime it is possible a player may look like competitor but in fact he may be complementor. Traditional bookstores saw electronic publishing and Internet as competitors but in fact they were complementor. A McGraw hill study revealed that demand in print version grew too when it created electronic version of book. This is why almost all the publishers now have electronic stores and kindle version of books.

Government: A Player Which Can’t Be Avoided

Have you ever thought why government is so powerful? It is customer when buy goods and services e.g. medicine, armaments. Govt is supplier when sell oil and mineral rights, spectrum rights. Govt is competing with private business when opens market for private companies. Govt is complementor when provides basic infrastructure (roads, cities, hospitals), civil order, security. Apart from all of above govt has one more power which others don’t have, power to formulate and impose policies. Power of govt to frame policies put it in most dominant position among all of us. Our day to day business deal with govt and that is why I strongly recommend understanding of law and constitution on which govt function.

This power of authority to change rule can put a player in very powerful position. For example few years back researcher was considered as good if published in higher Impact Factor (IF) journals. But in recent time many such journals started in India and developing countries and scientific bureaucrats from developed countries sitting in position of scientific policy making saw potential threat against their monopoly. Those bureaucrats devised new rule to maintain their monopoly: Science Citation Index (SCI). They mentioned SCI recognized journals have rigorous review procedure (How to define level of rigorousness. Rigorousness is relative thing!) and that is why it is more reliable. This is how they surpassed all the previous rules with this and subjugated researchers from developing countries. Irony is researchers and govts from developing countries are blindly following this SCI without giving a single thought on it. Researcher from developing countries have to face lot of trouble because they are playing the game setup and codified by developed countries and obviously it will be biased to benefit them. We are following it blindly without understanding intention.

Note: A socialist concept is that ‘Govt is sole authority on everything’ while current Indian govt has opened its doors for PPP. It pleases me when I see someone saying “Lets make it together” rather than “I am the only authority to do it”.

University as a Player

Students are university’s primary customers. Companies are customers when they want to hire their employees who are students in university. Govt is customer when commission research project to university. Faculties are primary suppliers of university who supplies knowledge. Universities compete with each other for students, faculties, and research funding. While universities are complementors in creating market for higher education. KG, primary, high schools complement universities because they provide trained students to university.

Where IISc Won?

As outlined in my previous article on foundation of university as a research system I outlined what to do to make system immortal and stronger. IISc has self correcting mechanism through Senate, CoD meetings. It has one of the largest scientific library in India. It has world class faculties. It has world class course content and structure. It has quality facilities for students to conduct cultural activities of their interest. Since IISc is research system, who is in business of providing knowledge, it is important to understand in the context of game of business explained in above figure.


As I mentioned, students are university’s primary customers. IISc has maintained its standard of admitted students’ quality through rigorous admission procedure. Students are given hostel, mess, auditorium etc facilities. Students are given freedom to explore their area of nonacademic interest. A proper feedback and grievance system motivated student to continue research at IISc. Parents are paying fees and they are also customers. Quality of courses offered, quality of laboratories, quality of library size are satisfactory return of their money. Timely completion of research projects with quality built trust among funders and developed ‘IISc Brand’.


Quality of faculty is the best in India and directors were active in recruiting best faculties. Also, faculties are given facilities, freedom to be with IISc. The previous directors of IISc have always emphasized on quality of faculties recruited. Own supplier database and stores helped researchers availability of raw material in IISc itself.


IISc has always maintained complementing approach towards competitors rather than competing.


IISc played key role in development of its own complementors e.g. dept. of AE IISc palyed crucial role in formation of NAL in 50s, IISc played supportive role in progress of RRI, IAS, ISRO etc. This created a Research Network in Bangalore. Local employment complemented IISc. Dual career couples become common since there are plenty of software industries and other industries in Bangalore where spouse can work. A freedom to students to organise cultural activities is also complement to IISc.


Core foundation principals of IISc are of Indian university system. There are three important aspect of university namely quality of students admitted (customers), quality of faculties (suppliers), and facilities to students (complementors). Proper emphasis on all of these gave it advantage over other universities (competitors). I think there were important factors which promoted Jamsedji to set up IISc in Bangalore.

  • At that time Mumbai, Culcutta, Madras (all these universities were funded by state) and other major cities already had universities and there is no point in competing with them.

  • Another factor could be because Bangalore was one of the summer headquarter of Britishers. Founding university in Britisher area is demonstration of Indian prowess.

  • Maharaja of Mysore was willing to donate land which solved the problem of availability of huge land required to setup institute.

Trained students from IISc joined industries in Bangalore city and right now Bangalore has become ‘Research Lab of India’ because of having many govt and private research centers. So, contribution of IISc in India’s progress is significant. The factors why IISc has won the race of research education in India are summarized below.

  • Climate and location of Bangalore city.

  • Proper balance between players like Customers (Quality of students admitted), Suppliers (Quality of faculties), Complements (hostels, auditorium, research network, pension after scholarship ends, Research Associateship).

  • Playing role in development of its own complementors e.g. RRI, IAS, NAL, CPRI, ISRO etc.

  • Creating complementing/supporting approach towards other research institutes rather than competing.

  • Smartly implementing ‘System Fundamentals’ in institute.

  • Maintaining and strengthening institute assets like laboratories, library, course content.

  • Openness to promote interdisciplinary research.

I think IISc has built itself as a research leader and not bureaucrat. As leader think about for his followers first, IISc has always thought about her followers first i.e. freedom and independence to faculties and students. Researcher can’t do proper research if he is dissatisfied in personal matter and freedom is most important personal matter. We all would like to be free and independent!

ઝબકારો: Bureaucrats think about executing orders issued by  system while leader think about people for whose benefit system is designed. Bureaucracy born since when governance born while leadership was always there since civilizations; Ram, Krushn, Mahavir, Buddha, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, Guru Nanak. We love and follow all of them because they have always thought about us.

What is Research?: Foundation of University as A Research System


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In my previous article ‘What is Research?: Role of Parents and Schools in Child’s Research Attitude’ I tried to explain qualities required in researcher and how it can be groomed in researcher from childhood. It can also be concluded that research is no sudden process and it requires proper planning. In this article I try to explain what institute should do to develop itself as research friendly.

  1. Research Tools and Supplements

What makes researcher competitive in field? Current research is mainly dominated by numerical simulation. It has two advantages over experimental research. First, due to global recession there is shortage of research funding, especially in experiments. Second, industry want to have preliminary opinion with minimum cost using simulation on how experiment will go. Considering these limitations of experiments in mind it is recommended that researcher should be aware of programming language. Other thing is researcher need to publish his work for knowledge of community. If he write paper in .doc or other document format then he will end up with spending time in typesetting which is not his duty. I recommend researcher should be aware with professional writing language like LaTex.

  1. Research environment: Foundation of Institution as A Research System

A system as whole should be supportive to researcher. Researchers are basically two types. Those who are senior e.g. faculties and post doctorals and those who are junior or subordinate to first one e.g. students. A system should be well structured to support researchers. System should be flexible, transparent and vibrant. If researchers have to run days and weeks behind PO, chemicals, marksheets etc then they will end up in spending time in useless activity rather than research. Researcher should have freedom to do research. There should not be restriction on researcher on when to come or leave the laboratory. Collaborative research is also desired.

System Fundamentals

I want to quote my classmate Pambhar Rajnikant’s (BE (mech, VVP, Rajkot) 2000-04) words

“There is no doubt he is best manager if a company function well in presence of him. But true manager is one whose company function well in his absence.”

95% of the people don’t know they are part of system. Common man fall in this category. 4% of people understand system but don’t want to enter in it. 1% of people run the system. Govt bureaucrats and officers belong to this category. There are few people(can be count on finger tip) who understand system, establish the system, and design it to live longer. Gautam Buddh, Mahavir Swami, Vatican, Prophet Muhammad, Jamsedji Tata, etc are such examples. It is dream of every leader to make his system immortal. Following are the fundamentals of system.

  • System should be self correcting.

  • System should be independent and self propagating.

  • System should be self energetic and self sustainable.

  • Right person at right place is key to above three key features.

Before going further let us understand fundamental of governance because system runs on some governing rules.


An organisation is a system and it must have foundation principal/rules/regulation on which the building(system) will stand. They are

  • Objective

  • Constitution

  • Activities

  • Income/Asset

Let me explain one by one.

  • Objective

The core philosophy of the organisation lies in its objective. System will collapse if it divert from its objective. For example consider system of marriage. It stand on objectives of faith, support, care etc. If these objectives are forgotten then there is chance marriage may fail. Similarly if it is decided that a institute should be devoted to research then it has to be always keep in mind. Consider example of universities in West Bengal. Due to Naxalite/Communist movement in WB youth attracted towards politics and result is collapse of academic progress. On other side, IISc was apolitical even in struggleful time of freedom movement.

  • Constitution

Any constitution has 3 pillars: Legislature, Judiciary, and Executive.

  1. Legislature creates law and usually a committee is made as its head e.g. parliament.

  2. Judiciary protects rights of members e.g. legal system in India.

  3. Executive is like hand and feet of constitution and they perform completion of tasks suggested by institution e.g. civil servants.

  • Activities

In research there are only two components; research and researcher, unlike giver and taker in other analogy. This means in research faculty and student both are at same level and both are learning only. According to me institute activities are mainly of two types namely academic and extra academic activities. Any institute has two bodies; Administration body and Student body. Student power is like nuclear energy. It will be boon if you know how to use it with proper control otherwise it may cause destruction. Environment for the activities should be in such a way that students should be allowed to do the activities of their interest but with provision of crosscheck/monitoring by institute administration.

Extra academics will require to organize events and will build leadership quality in student. Let students organize their events and let them manage themselves. Leaders are needed in everywhere irrespective of field. To publish 5 paper is different issue and to guide 2 PhD student is different issue. Former requires dedication and will help researcher personally. Later requires leadership quality and affects entire community.

  • Income/Assets

If I talk about asset then I mean courses offered, laboratories, libraries, departments. There are three possible cases for university/system.

  1. Assets > Liabilities, in this case university will prosper.
  2. Assets = Liabilities, in this case university will sustain.
  3. Assets < Liabilities, in this case it is difficult for university to prosper.

It is always desirable university administration know how to utilize, manage her resources.

Let us proceed further to understand system fundamentals.

4.1 How to make system self correcting?

The first problem you will notice in govt offices is there is no one to answer. Why so? They fear none because they have job security. It is difficult to expel govt employee once he is recruited. Similarly, no one can ask him. If you complain about him it will go to internal assessment and end up with no punishment. To make system self correcting first of all system should know there is some problem, followed by analysis and solution technique. The solution to this problem is to have some kind of feedback structure which imposes answerability and complain/problem addressal mechanism in system. A strong feedback structure will identify problem for system. For that there should be proper communication between various components of system. The problem should be analysed and since system is non living it has to be done by governors of system.

In this regards I want to give example of IISc. I am not saying it is the best but I think it is the best amongst the systems which I have seen till now. There are two types of components in IISc: External Structure and Internal Structure. At external level, there is IISc Court and IISc Council. MPs and various other govt officers are members of IISc Court and it is headed by President of India. While in IISc Council, eminent scientists from various scientific organizations are members of it along with IISc director and registrar as ex-officio members. It is headed by person appointed by TATA trust. At institute level there are two bodies namely institute administration and researchers. There is provision to address their individual and common problems. The IISc Senate is the highest level meeting inside IISc where communication between faculties happen. Then comes CoD meeting where students has representation. There is library Senate which you can say intermediate between these two (as a IISc students’ general secretary, we fought for student representation in it and we successfully got there). There other bodies are Council of Warden, Amenities Committee where students have representation and are allowed to raise their voice. So, as par communication concerns both researchers, faculties and students, are allowed to raise their problems in Senate and CoD meetings respectively. The problems are analysed/discussed in the meeting and solved. This is how IISc has been addressing her issues and has become stronger day by day after eliminating hurdles. It is good example of self correcting mechanism.

4.2 How to make system self energizing and self sustaining?

Energy comes from food we eat and in analogy of institute it is knowledge and ideas. Knowledge will come from library. Larger the library, greater availability of knowledge. Consider example of IISc library. Patent registration is now available online but in 1910 patent register was available at limited locations in India and IISc library was one of them. IISc has patent registers from its first edition. Apart from these, IISc has availability of scientific journals published from 1818 AD. Some of the classic books available in IISc library I did not find elsewhere. Library is heart of any institute. Books will guide them and journal papers will update them with current research. This is why library is asset of any institute. Another thing which gives energy to university is laboratories. Laboratories will update researchers with knowledge. Entire institute fund mostly allotted in 3 parts; Infrastructure, maintenance and library. Laboratory, department setup will come in infrastructure. Maintaining student hostels, buildings, stores, units, purchase, etc comes in maintenance. I believe almost 40-45% budget should be alloted to library.

I give you example of Library of Congress, Washington DC. Established through legislature passed by president of USA John Adams, with funding of $5000, on 24th April 1800, It is largest library in the world by shelf size and number of volumes. It possesses some of the books on Indology which you may find it difficult to available even in India. The benefit is many “renowned” scholars like Wendy misinterpret it. Library is kind of system which will be helpful to generations in refining their knowledge and ideas. It should be well equipped. Academic administration has to play important role in set up of strong library.

4.3 How to make system independent/free and self propagating?

System has many components and independence given to each of them means independence given to system. System should be flexible to give freedom to researchers. Components are researchers, namely faculties and students. IISc gave faculties/dept so much independent that it did not have formal convocation and degrees used to be awarded by departments independently. Students were given freedom to utilize institute resources like seminar halls, auditorium free of cost. Different cultural, regional, ideological student groups were allowed to flourished and mutual respecting environment was created. Research is not at all about always reading. You require mental and physical relaxation also. A dedicated student body should be formed which will look after student activities. Sports facilities, auditorium, conference hall, lecture hall etc provides environment to the students to develop their sports skill, leadership skills through organising events. Environment for the activities should be in such a way that students should be allowed to do the activities of their interest freely but with provision of crosscheck/monitoring by institute administration.

4.4 Right Person at Right Position

I have already explained this in my previous article on Donald Trump’s VP choice. I want to give example of my good experience with IISc administrator. It was in 2009 and I got admitted as PhD student in IISc. I had to take signature from Mr. Paneer Selvam who was Dy. Registrar (Academic) of IISc. I caught him on the corridor and asked his signature. He did not have pen and saw one in my pocket (I have habit of keeping pen with me since UG days). He immediately picked my pen and signed. This shows how system administrators make system flexible.

Game Theory, Negative Marking, and its Connection with Religion


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Currently I am preparing for Gujarat Public Service Commission (GPSC) exam for recruitment as a faculty in govt. engineering college in Gujarat. The exam has only one paper containing 200 Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) having five options and 30% negative marking. Suddenly a thought came in my mind why negative marking is there in many entrance exams? After reading this article you will come to know that system is made active via playing a game with students. Before proceeding further let us have some understanding of Random Variables (RV) and its Expectations. RV is a variable which can be correlate with any physical quantity. In statistical terms it can be approximated to data while Expectation is its mean. You may read about it more in any basic course books from B.Com., M.Com., M.Sc. (Stat), or probability and statistics books.

Note: I used Probability and RV in my PhD thesis.


Let assume there is an exam having 100 MCQ with four options and carrying one mark each. The expected marks obtained by student is

E(Marks)=Σ Assigned Marks of a questions*P(options)

= 100*1*P(A)+ 100*1*P(B) + 100*1*P(C) + 100*1*P(D)

= 100*1/4 + 100*1/4 + 100*1/4 + 100*1/4

= 100

So, on an average a student may get maximum 100/100 marks. If you observe the state board results then you will observe getting 80-90% has become easier nowadays.


Suppose in above example there is 25% negative marking for each wrong answer, then expected marks can be calculated as below

E(Marks)=Σ Assigned Marks of a questions*P(options)

= 100*1*P(A)+ 100*1*P(B) + 100*1*P(C) – 100*1/4*P(D)

= 100*1/4 + 100*1/4 + 100*1/4 – 100*1/4*1/4

= 68.75

What happened? Where 31.25 marks gone?


I have attempted GATE-04, 05, 06, 07, 09 exams. Let me explain you mathematics behind these exams.

GATE 2009 (IIT Roorkee)

Question Paper

Q. 1 to 20 total 20 questions carrying 1 mark each = 20 marks.

Q. 21 to 60, total 40 questions carrying 2 marks each = 80 marks.

Negative Marking

1/3 negative marking in Q. 1 to 20 total 20 questions carrying 1 mark each.

2/3 negative marking in Q. 21 to 56, 57, 59 total 38 questions carrying 2 marks each.

E(Marks)=Σ Assigned Marks of a questions*P(options)

= 20*1*1/4 + 20*1*1/4 + 20*1*1/4 – 20*1/3*1/4 + 38*2*1/4 + 38*2*1/4 + 38*2*1/4 – 38*2/3*1/4

= 64 marks out of 100 marks.

If I say about my score in this exam, I got 57 marks and secured All India Rank 175. My guess is there may be very less students who crossed 64 marks level and GATE committee might have predicted it via this stats.

GATE 2007 (IIT Kanpur)

Question Paper

Q. 1 to 20 total 20 questions carrying 1 mark each = 20 marks.

Q. 21 to 85, total 65 questions carrying 2 marks each = 130 marks.

Negative Marking

1/4 negative marking in Q. 1 to 20 total 20 questions carrying 1 mark each.

1/2 negative marking in Q. 21 to 76, 78, 80, 82, 84 total 60 questions carrying 2 marks each.

E(Marks)=Σ Assigned Marks of a questions*P(options)

= 20*1*1/4 + 20*1*1/4 + 20*1*1/4 – 20*1/4*1/4 + 60*2*1/4 + 60*2*1/4 + 60*2*1/4 – 60*1/2*1/4

= 96.25 marks out of 150 marks.

GATE 2006 (IIT Kharagpur)

Scheme was same as GATE 2007.

GATE 2005

Question Paper

Q. 1 to 30 total 30 questions carrying 1 mark each = 30 marks.

Q. 31 to 80, and 81 to 85 carrying a,b options total 60 questions carrying 2 marks each = 120 marks.

Negative Marking

1/4 negative marking in Q. 1 to 30 total 30 questions carrying 1 mark each.

1/2 negative marking in Q. 31 to 80 and 81a, 82a, 83a, 84a, 85a total 55 questions carrying 2 marks each.

E(Marks)=Σ Assigned Marks of a questions*P(options)

= 30*1*1/4 + 30*1*1/4 + 30*1*1/4 – 30*1/4*1/4 + 55*2*1/4 + 55*2*1/4 + 55*2*1/4 – 55*1/2*1/4

= 96.25 marks out of 150 marks.

GATE 2004 (IIT Delhi)

Question Paper

Q. 1 to 30 total 30 questions carrying 1 mark each = 30 marks.

Q. 31 to 90, total 60 questions carrying 2 marks each = 120 marks.

Negative Marking

1/4 negative marking in Q. 1 to 30 total 30 questions carrying 1 mark each.

1/2 negative marking in Q. 31 to 90 total 60 questions carrying 2 marks each.

E(Marks)=Σ Assigned Marks of a questions*P(options)

= 30*1*1/4 + 30*1*1/4 + 30*1*1/4 – 30*1/4*1/4 + 60*2*1/4 + 60*2*1/4 + 60*2*1/4 – 60*1/2*1/4

= 108.75 marks out of 150 marks.

Finally we can tabulate the statistics as below

GATE exam

1 mark questions (with negative marking)

2 mark questions (with negative marking)

Maximum Marks

Expected Marks

Expected marks as % of total marks


30 (25%)

60/60 (25%)





30 (25%)

55/60 (25%)





20 (25%)

60/65 (25%)





20 (25%)

60/65 (25%)





20 (33.33%)

38/40 (33.33%)




Following things can be concluded from above table

  1. From column 6 it can be seen that share of expected marks is reducing.

  2. From column 5 it can be seen that expected marks have reduced though maximum mark is unchanged.

  3. Students appeared in GATE 2004 were luckier because GATE committee was liberal in giving lesser challenge via taking lesser marks. May be at that time GATE Committee did not realise it can toughen exam.

  4. Transition from 2005 to 2006 suggest that expected marks are same with reduction in 1 mark questions and rise in 2 mark questions, keeping number of 2 marks questions same.

  5. GATE 2009 stats suggest that raising negative marking keeps share of expected marks almost same despite of reduction in maximum marks and number of 2 marks questions.

It seems GATE committee is continuously trying to take away students’ marks and giving tougher challenges.



Let us understand how GATE Score is given.

Performance Index (PI) of candidate is given by



m= Marks obtained by candidate in subject.

a= Average of marks of all candiates who appeared in the paper mentioned on scorecard.

s= Standard deviation (SD) of marks of all candidate who appeared in the paper mentioned in this scorecard.

To facilitate performance comparison across GATE papers and over a block of years, this PI is scaled with respect to global average and global SD



mg= Rescaled marks defined with reference to global average and SD

ag= Global average of marks of all candidates who appeared across all papers and years

sg= Global SD of marks of all candidates who appeared across all papers in years.

Therefore candidate’s rescaled marks is


Considering 150 as maximum marks in GATE paper, rescaled marks mg is finally represented as GATE score on 0 to 1000 and is given by

GATE Score=1000*mg/150=1000*ag/150 + (1000/150)*sg*PI

You can observe from GATE score equation that lesser marks obtained by student (m), lesser his GATE Score. That is why GATE committee always try student get lesser marks and via offering negative marking committee is assuring average marks (expected marks) of student is always lesser.



Question Paper

Q. 1 to 100 total 100 questions carrying 1 mark each = 100 marks.

Q. 101 to 200, total 100 questions carrying 2 marks each = 200 marks.

Negative Marking

They have developed more dangerous scheme which becomes deadly with inclusion of negative marking. There are 5 options out of which fixed option (E) only will carry 0 mark. Even unattempted question will be considered for negative marking unless option (E) is selected. They have given following scheme for negative marking.

30% negative marking in Q. 1 to 100 total 100 questions carrying 1 mark each.

30% negative marking in Q. 101 to 200 total 100 questions carrying 2 marks each.

Without negative marking expected marks will be

E(Marks)=Σ Assigned Marks of a questions*P(options)

= 100*1*1/5 + 100*1*1/5 + 100*1*1/5 + 100*0*1/5 + 100*1*1/5 + 100*2*1/5 + 100*2*1/5 + 100*2*1/5 + 100*0*1/5 + 100*2*1/5

= 240 marks out of 300 marks (80% share of maximum marks).

This means this method of fifth option carrying zero mark is taking away students’ mark without even negative marking is implemented.

With negative marking, expected marks of student is,

E(Marks)=Σ Assigned Marks of a questions*P(options)

= 100*1*1/5 + 100*1*1/5 + 100*1*1/5 + 100*0*1/5100*0.3*1/5 + 100*2*1/5 + 100*2*1/5 + 100*2*1/5 + 100*0*1/5100*0.6*1/5

= 160 marks out of 300 marks (53.33% share of maximum marks).

I don’t know officers at GPSC are knowing what they have done but this exam scheme is deadly and will give them maximum number of disqualified students. They must set lower cut off marks otherwise hardly anyone will qualify.


Well, there are two types of students; hard working and lazy. Hard working students anyway will prepare well while lazy student won’t. In normal exams, it is possible lazy student may guess and attempt the questions which he is not sure and may get same score compared to hard working student while in return he is not losing in guessing the answer. This is wrong because guesstimators may corrupt whole system, whose people are also part, via taking wrong decision through their little to zero knowledge of subject. Also, what is justification given to hard working student? Examiners thought of making self correcting system which may punish those lazy guessers via developing negative marking exams.


According to every religion in the world, you will be rewarded for your right things and punished for your wrong things. Guessing and scoring competitively is wrong and system act as god to punish for your wrong. Negative marking is derived based on the core religious principal of reward and punishment. God (system) is there to watch and punish (negative marks) you for your wrong doings (guesses). I don’t know why none of the communists are objecting it  .


The system is build lively/acting by snatching students’ marks for each of his sins. System is playing a game with you in which it has eaten away your marks at the moment you appear in exam. Message of the gamer is; don’t blabber in exams and attempt only those questions for which you are sure. Of course you may gamble and attempt the questions on which you are not sure. There is no harm in trying. If successful then full marks. If fail then you are losing a little (Isn’t it sounds like business?). Play on your own risk because it is risky game where you may lose something for your wrong. Via this philosophy, system is encouraging students parallely to take risk and avoid blabbering both.


ઝબકારો: Religion is created out of a need by human and rejecting it means rejecting ourself. Whether present or in coming future, we can’t abandon religion because it has significantly influenced our thinking pattern.

Game Theory and Donald Trump’s Vice President Choice


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After reading news that Donald Trump has chosen current Indiana governor Mike Pence his Vice President (VP) choice suddenly a question came in my mind what is importance of vice president and why his/her choice is crucial in political career? After investigating in detail I realise it require careful decision to select right candidate at this post. Let me explain how VP is going to affect president’s policies.

Understanding USA congress

Before starting let’s understand structure of USA congress (Congress). It is bicameral body comprises of two houses; Elected 435 member body named as House of Representatives (Loksabha or Lower House in Indian context) and elected 100 member body named as Senate (Rajyasabha or Upper House in Indian context).

Representatives, members of House of Representatives, are elected by direct voting by US citizen and represented proportionally e.g. California has highest representatives of 53/435. Speaker of House of Representative is elected by Representatives. Senators, members of Senate, are elected by direct voting by US citizen and represented equally; 2 members each from 50 USA states and VP is speaker of Senate. VP doesn’t have voting right in Senate unless there is tie. Senate has some special privileges in decisions related to appointment of cabinet secretory, federal judges, military officials, ambassadors and that is why it is more prestigious.

The Senate has 1 out of 12 chances of tie on any bill. Mathematically,

P(tie)=P(Yes)P(No)*selection of 50 members out of 100 who support bill.

= (0.5)^50*(0.5)^50*100C50

= 0.07958

= 1/12.5

Here the role of VP comes in to picture. As per constitution VP doesn’t have voting right unless there is tie and that is why VP’s vote and role is important. History of USA is full with VP breaking tie with his vote. There has been total 222 occasions in first 200 years of US history when VP broke tie with his vote. John Adams, first VP and second President of USA cast 29 tiebreaking votes during his eight year VP term. In most recent times Richard Nixon (in tenure of Eisenhower 1953-61) was most active tiebreaker VP with tiebreaking score of 8.

Influence of person’s past on his actions in present and future

Well, you all are married or going to marry and one statement might have come to you; Life will go smooth if both life partners know/understand each other (Most of time this statement come from female). What do we mean by knowing/understanding a person? I want to answer it in a single statement “To predict what he/she will respond/act when some situation occur in his/her life”. Why we want to understand person? Because most of time we want to manipulate/use him/her according to our wish for benefit of either of party. It is true for any case when two party involved; student-guide, employer-employee, senior boss-junior. Every person has a history and you may predict him/her if thoroughly understand his/her past because he will act based on what are his/her experience in past and how he/she has analysed those incidences. Simple example. If you are preparing cucumber salad then you will first taste it for bitterness because in past you might have prepared bitter salad. I have already explained it in previous article about ‘Role of family and school in child’s research attitude‘.

Why Mike Pence?

In past Mike Pence has been supportive to issues of anti-immigration, pro-military, anti-homosexuality. If you have observed Trump’s speeches then you will notice his emphasise on curbing illegal immigrants specially from Mexico, military campaign in middle east, pro-catholic ideas. Suppose there is a bill in Senate regarding military spending. Bill has three possibilities; passed, rejected or tie. If passed then no issue. If rejected then ultimately it will come to president and Trump can always veto it. The problem will come when there is tie because it is neither pass and not rejected so Trump can’t veto it since it won’t reach him. VP has to vote and break the tie. VP will vote to pass the bill if he is of the same ideology with President. Since Mike share same ideology with Trump there are high chances he may vote to pass the bill. Trump is playing safe game.


Key to successful administration is ‘Right person at right position’. A good chess player is the one who is able to predict opponent’s moves via understanding his mind and putting his pieces in balanced attacking and defensive position.

ઝબકારો: Love happens with eyes closed (that is why it is said ‘Love is blind’ 😉) but marriage has to be done with open eyes.

What is Research?: Role of Family and Schools in Child’s Research Attitude


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Since last 1.5 years I am trying to write this article. I hope I conveyed properly. Research, a word which hardly anyone understands. We hear many time that India should focus on research if want to compete with world. What is research? How it is done? What should be done to promote research? There are many such questions. I am writing below my thoughts which will give rough idea about the answers of above questions. This article is structured as below

1. Research Fundamentals.

2. Quality of Researchers.

2.1. Responsibility of Parents.

2.2. Responsibility of School.

2.3. Why family and school are important in child’s research attitude?

3. Research Tools and Supplements.

4. Research Environment.

4.1. Foundation of Institute as a System.

4.1.1. Objective.

4.1.2. Constitution.

4.1.3. Activities.

4.1.4. Asset/Income.

  1. Research fundamentals.

Research is a technique to solve problems. It has 3 basic features.

  • Identify or recognize problem.

  • Analyze the problem.

  • Data or statistical consideration.

  • Apply suitable technique or tool and solve problem.

  1. Researcher quality

A researcher is not merely faculty or student but he is entire system who has influence from his two major machinery from his childhood; family and school. Child spend 33% (8/24) time in school while rest of 67% (16/24) time at home. Child’s future depend on what he learned and trained from these two machineries.

  1. Responsibility of parents

I want to start with a Doha from Balkand, Shri Ramcharitmanas.

जड चेतन गुण दोष मय बिश्व किन्ह् करतार

संत हन्स गुण गहहि पय परिहरि बारी बिकार ||1.6||


Vidhata has created these living-nonliving world with good character and bad character both. But saint and swan takes only milk from the mixture of milk and water (It is possible translation is incorrect. In that case I request you to read Shri Ramcharitmanas published by Gita Press Gorakhpur).

This world is filled with improper, bad, false, immoral, unethical etc. many things. Responsibility of the parents is to teach child how to differentiate proper among improper, good among bad, moral among immoral, ethical among unethical similar to swan is able to differentiate milk from mixture of water and milk.

  1. Responsibility of school

Education is not about learning but it is about training of mind how to think”. Einstein

Responsibility of the school is to teach student the following.

  • How to make mind think.

  • Identify problem, analyse problem, and apply appropriate tool to solve the problem.

  • How to transform information in to knowledge.

  • How to propagate the knowledge.

Let me explain via my PhD research. Of course there may be better contribution available in my field but I saw PhD as research training to learn how to solve problem. I identified that I want to improve combustion. I analysed it and found combustion can be improved if coal fragment resulting from thermal stress caused due to heat transfer. I solved differential equations using numerical methods and simulated the process using C language. This is how I identified, analysed, and solved problem using appropriate tool. After running simulation I obtained information about data. Again I used MATLAB tool to plot data and thus some important observations and conclusions obtained. This is how I transformed information (data) in to knowledge (conclusions). Again I used LaTex tool to write my research article and I published papers. This is how I propagated my knowledge.

  1. Why family and school are important in child’s research attitude?

It is about the methodology how do you understand the problem whether it is academic or social because ultimately we are solving the problems throughout our life. We are surrounded by human and social problem becomes complex due to difference in thinking patterns of human.


Fig. 1. Human response system.

Outside data enter human only from five different senses namely eye, ear, nose, tongue, and skin. The data received via this sources are stored or further processed in brain. Data is analysed and interpreted by mind and based on this it releases order to body parts. Those five senses are like sensors/DAQ. Brain is like computer which stores/process data. Mind analyses the data and releases order based on analysis. This is why the reasoning/analysis process between brain and mind is core of any human. The behaviour/action of human will entirely depend on how his mind interprets data after analysing. This entire phase of reasoning/analysis is entirely depend on what you have learned in your family and what you are trained in school. For example any subject/religious book. After reading book from eye different people analyse different thing and react based on what they interpreted. A case study: A person in fed with Alternate Logical System with proofs from a book. This is how terrorists are born. Brainwashing is a technique to give alternate logical system where current logical system is replaced with well designed Alternate Logical System. If you are trained/taught correctly then you will think constructive. If not then will think destructive. It is always important to have positive, constructive, and supportive approach in life.

In this regard I want to share my interview experience with IIT and IISc. I attended PhD interview in IIT Kanpur. There were 15 faculties in interview panel. They asked me various questions and identified what is my weak area. Later, they started to ask from that weak area only. They started questions one after another even without looking at me that I am answering to someone else. It was near to psychopathic behaviour. Contrary, I attended IISc interview. There were 5 faculty in interview. They first identified what is my strong area and took me deeper in that area only. The point I want to make is attitude of evaluation. IISc faculties tried to look positivity and what I can do my best while IITK faculties tried to look negativity and what I am unable to do. This may reflect in the approach of person how they see problem/issue. For example consider nuclear energy. A smart person will see tremendous energy potential in nuclear and will solve the hurdles coming in the way of harnessing it. Problems are always there in any system and we are supposed to solve it. In this case energy will be obtained. While, other person will see lot of problems in nuclear energy and will try to think about future disaster coming out of nuclear. It is possible energy will be unutilised in the wake of idea of disaster.

ઝબકારો: It reminded me a Shlok from Bhagvad Gita

इन्द्रियाणि परान्यहुरिन्द्रियेभ्य: परं मनः
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धे:  परतस्तु सः   (गीता 3.21)
Translation: Indriyas are above body, Man is above Indriyas, Buddhi is above Man, and Aatma is above Buddhi.
It is all about building logic system (Buddhi) between Brain and Mind (Man). Buddhi is above Man.

My good experience with Logistic Post


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Dear Friends,

I want to share my good experience with India Post. I wanted to send luggage weighing 30 kg to my home. I contacted some packers and movers available in Malleshwaram and the range I received was ₹ 6000 to ₹ 9500. I read about Logistic Post (LP) when I visited post office. I inquired about it with a person sitting on window and he told me LP may be inconvenient to you and I can send through Registered Parcel amounting me ₹ 1050. Only problem was it has maximum limit of 20 kg per consignment. I have to pack luggage in 2-3 consignments and take to post office. Somehow, I got contact details of LP through Karnataka Post website and they told me they will charge ₹12 per kg and no limit on weight. Officials told me I have to pack luggage myself, preferably 20 kg per consignment, no problem if I can’t. LP sent a person to my hostel and carried luggage in post vehicle. There were two payment options: same person may come next day with receipt and you may pay to him, or you may go to nearest office of LP and pay there. I found my luggage weighed 55 kg and total amount I have to pay was ₹ 2545. It could have cost me within ₹ 1000 if I was living in city where LP has warehouse. I had to pay ₹ 1500 extra because my hometown is away from nearest LP warehouse and they have to send special vehicle to my home. Luggage transfer through LP will be cheaper if you live in bigger city.

A person at LP office told me that ordinary post and Logistic Post are part of India Post but both are different divisions and that is why both are kind of competitors. Due to this reason the person with whom I inquired in post office might have thought of making business for his own division. I am giving comparison between tariffs below

Parcel Post: Registered Parcel and Unregistered Parcel.

Registered Parcel: Max. 4 kg.

Unregistered Parcel: ₹ 19 for first 0.5 kg and ₹16 for subsequent 0.5 kg up to 20 kg.

Logistic Post

₹ 12 per kg, no limit on weigh.

You may visit India Post website for detailed information. Below I am sharing contact details of nearest LP hub

Logistic Post Hub, (BMTC bus No. 180 from IISc will drop you in front of this LP hub)

Kaval Bairasandra, R. T. Nagar,

Near Pushpanjali theater,

Bangalore – 560032.

Officer In-charge: Indira madam

Mobile (Personal): 94808 87312.

Office: 080 2365 0013.

Many students (mostly M.E./M.Tech. students) vacate their hostel every year between the months of May and July. Below is contact detail of concerned authority in LP if Students’ Council (SC) want to facilitate this service for welfare of students.

Mr. Manjunatha,

Chief Marketing Executive,

Logistic Post, Karnataka Region, Bangalore.

Mob: 94808 35439.

Additional Information

There are three ways to transport goods; sea, land, and air. Ratio of their cost is 0.5:1:1.5. This means cost of shifting X kg luggage up to Y km distance will be ₹ 0.5Z via sea route, ₹ Z via land route, and ₹ 1.5Z via air route. Indian Railway (IR) is biggest provider of logistic service in India and all other logistic networks for longer distance via road are somewhere linked to it. I also inquired with IR. It would have cost me ₹ 10 per kg but only problem was I have to pack and take it to major railway station in city (Bangalore Central Railway Station in Bengaluru). IR will send luggage to nearest major railway junction and won’t provide service to smaller junctions. Customer has to make his own arrangements to shift from major junction to his destination.

PS: The goods reached my home within 6th day. There was no damage to goods and it was in good condition.

નકલ ને અક્કલ નો હોય


Recently I read a chapter in Hindi language book of 7th standard in Gujarat Board. It was about Hazrat Ali.



This chapter reminded me Gujarati dictum નકલ ને અક્કલ નો હોય. I know this story is of Chanakya and writers have steal it directly from that story. Why I claim so? Let me put my logic.

First of all candles prepared from wax and wax came after discovery of crude oil. Otherwise there was no candle before it. Of course there were vegetable oil lamps. Original Chanakya story mentioned about using vegetable oil.

So, writers thought we adapt the Chanakya story and replace his name with Ali’s name and we can appease Muslims. But, in hurry to copy they forgot technical logic in it.

Game Theory, The Brinkmanship, and Religion


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In the initial phases of relationships, I try to find two boundaries of the person; Happy and Angry. I always try to play between these boundaries because I know crossing boundary may lead me out of relationship. It is okay if you can’t give happiness but don’t make the other person angry by crossing his angry boundary. Religion is one of the anger point and hence very sensitive issue. The following article is about religion and it is very sensitive matter for many people in world. I am purely interested in analysing and I don’t mean to hurt anyone.

What is The Brinkmanship?

The Brinkmanship (TB) is the technique of threat. Threat is TB if following three points are kept in mind.

  1. Threat should be credible.

  2. Arrange to take control for punishment out of your hands so as to deny yourself the opportunity to redraw the line.

  3. Transform the precipice into a slippery slope. With each step further down the slope there is a risk of losing control and falling into the abyss.

Let me explain this. Consider following two threats.

  1. I will punish you if you don’t do what I say, delay will only worsen situation.

  2. You will be punished if you don’t do what I say, delay will only worsen situation.

A person who gives threat #1 is popularly known as Goonda while a person who gives threat #2 is popularly known as Religious Cleric (RC) (He can be priest, pope, or maulana). Why so much discrimination between branding of both though both are giving similar threat of punishment and both are giving opportunity to avert threat? The reason is because threat #2 is TB. Following are the reasons why threat #2 is TB.

  • Threat is credible. You will be punished for your sins (Religious scriptures of all the religions are full with punishment techniques).

  • God will punish. It is not in RC’s hand to punish.

  • Stop here otherwise further sins will give you harder punishment in hell.

Entire system is actually TB. Whether he is priest, pastor, or maulana all will tell same things “God is watching you and he may punish you if you do wrong. Please do whatever I say to avoid wrath of god and do so and so rituals as I suggest if you have already done wrong”. Smart RC will run entire extortion network “I am the only person who can save you from falling in to slope”. This kind of smart person will become equivalent to god and will be popular as Godman.

So, the entire business of religion works on two fundamentals.

  • Promise of facility, comfort, entertainment, fun etc things which human desires deep in mind.

  • The Brinkmanship.

An intelligent person will add third step of salvation and he will be branded as prophet. So the prophet offers three things; Promise, The Brinkmanship, and only I have power to salvage you from your sins. A religion will be founded and permanent monopoly of prophet will be established after inclusion of one more step: Codifying his set of rules in a book.

This is all about world’s oldest business. People are playing this game being set by agents of god though by no way you can verify anybody received promised things or punished because of his sins. This is how one of the most secular GT technique being used for religion!

Game Theory, Loksabha Election 2014 and Election Agenda


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In previous post I explained strategy of political parties in elections. In this post I will try to explain what should be the election agenda so that voters will trust you. Before proceeding further let me explain questions raised by few of friends. The diagrams I shared had only equal probabilities which doesn’t give you decision which plan to opt.

What risk BJP is playing in Bihar Assembly Election 2015?

Well, that is where leadership comes in to picture. Unlike other sciences, politics is purely ‘Risk on Thumb Rule’ science. No one can say confidently that people will vote in this way, but they may predict that people may vote in this way if provided set of things. It entirely depends on leader how he understands people’s mind and promises what they want. In last mail I wrote that BJP has chance to win if Path 4 is executed. Let me write it here again for you.

INC Image Based and BJP Issue Based

INC is spreading dirt and BJP is talking about development. People may vote BJP if they see hope in BJP. BJP need to showcase their work and ideas in effective manner. BJP has to show vision to people.

Result: BJP has chance to win in this case.

And it actually happened in that way. In LS2014 it was clearly “Narendr Modi (NM) verses Others Game” because he was PM candidate. But, in Bihar he can not contest as CM though according to Path 4 it is preferable to set game “NM verses Other Game”! This is where BJP is playing biggest gamble: Don’t declare CM candidate for Bihar election. Now in absence of any CM candidate the opposition obviously target NM. This is how NM transformed the game in to “Him verses Other Game” instead of “CM(or BJP) verses Others Game”. There are some advantages in not declaring CM candidate.

  1. Game can be set in “NM verses Others Game” mode which will help BJP in bringing opposition to opt lower track (i.e. image based, Path 4).

  2. If CM candidate from upper caste is declared then Dalits may divided. But in absence of any CM candidate Dalits may think “We have chance of Dalit leader (Manjhi) becoming CM. Lets vote BJP”.

  3. Vice versa can be think of if CM candidate declared is from lower cast.

I think this is what BJP did in other state assembly elections and it was successful plan. That is why I strongly believe that NM will become bigger and bigger as you throw more salvo on him because according to Path 4 people won’t like such nonsense.

How to improve winning probability?

Well, as my mentioned above many of my friends raised question that chart shows only equal probabilities which doesn’t give any decision. No one can surely say this should be done to win election. However, they may suggest some possible ways which can be approached. BJP can increase its winning probability in following phases.

  1. Don’t declare CM candidate and convert game in to “NM verses Others Game” bringing opposition to opt lower track, 100% for that path. Now BJP has 50% each chance to opt for Image based or Issue based path. BJP’s probability for these two paths is increased to 50% each from 25% each previously (Refer figures in previous mail).

  2. In next phase, set agenda in such a way that voters will see hope in you. If it swings probabilities by atleast 1% i.e. 51-49% then also you have decision there.

  3. Candidate selection is another factor which improves your probability of win. Unlike other states, cast leaders are most important in Bihar. There you have to select local cast leaders. This may also improve your probability of win.

  4. If you properly plan each phases then you may end up with win-loss probability to somewhere 60-40% which is decent figure.

How to Design Election Agenda

As you know, study of human psychology has been my favourite interest. I like to understand them. Human wants some things in their conscious mind

  1. Comfort

  2. Progress/Development

  3. Security

If you are observing closely then you will realise these are the things which citizen expect from government. For example;

  1. People like clean roads, pure water, sanitation, car, TV etc. These issues related to infrastructure and luxury are basically comfort issues.

  2. People like to have ample jobs, business opportunity, strong economy, money liquidity, scientific/technological development etc. These are basically developmental/progress issues.

  3. People like to have proper police protection, security from terrorism, bank security, legal protection. These things are related to security issues.

I visited USA in Oct 2013 and I observed the government policies there are focused on these issues. I saw many policemen on road compared to we find in India. After 9/11 Homeland Department made it compulsory to give biometric data if you want to enter USA. At the immigration check itself everyone has to give his/her biometric data so that police can trace you if you commit crime. Govt gives importance to security there. The other things about infrastructure, scientific progress etc you may be aware with in USA. I also visited Germany, France, and Switzerland countries in Oct 2014. The govt there focuses on social security. Pension for unemployed etc are key features.

Human desires and Election agenda

A leader is the person who understands what people needs and what need to be spent to fulfill their desires. Narendr Modi knows the nerves of people and set the election agenda. Some people will say he alone did not set agenda but there was a team. But team selection also requires some mastery over human understanding. You can not put anyone as your adviser. Basic principal of administration is to have right person at right place. Otherwise leader may end up in a situation similar to Rahul Gandhi. I surprise who writes his speeches ?. Anyway coming back to agenda: sanitation, jobs, investment, curbing terrorism etc were the agenda of BJP govt which are basically comfort, progress, and security issues respectively. There was something for everyone in BJP’s agenda.

  • Toilets in houses, smart cities (Comfrot issue)

  • Development for liberals (development issue).

  • Industry and business establishment (progress issue)

  • Ram Mandir for Hindus or Uniform Civil Code for progressive Muslims.

  • Article 370 for intellectuals

  • Women empowerment to attract 50% of the voters.

  • Control on illegal migration from Bangladesh, and stronger foreign policy with Pakistan and China (Security issue).

People voted BJP because they saw hope in NM and NM knew what people want and agenda set accordingly.


I read somewhere “Every person has price to be purchased”. Why it is said so? It is logical, through money a person can buy luxuries, security bonds, personal body guards. Money is all-in-one item which can buy all these requirements. That is why money is common weakness for many people.